I know that at South-by-Southwest Interactive this year, Brian Brushwood is hoping to give a talk on how to Cheat, Scam, & Swindle Your Way to Internet Fame . However, I think I've managed to break it down into a few pretty simple steps.
First off, you don't need to be extremely prolific. You're YouTube Channel probably doesn't even need to have anything. But then you just need to post one truly awesome video.
Now, it helps if you're a attractive young woman, who's video is about a subject close to any geek's heart, but anything truly awesome will work. Of course with even Laptops these days more than capable of editing video, and reasonable quality HD video cameras available for under $1000, the barriers to entry are simply amazingly low compared to where they were even five years ago.
Once you've made and published your awesome video, with the Internet being what it is, you're going to get at least some views almost immediately. Now, this is where the trick is. The video needs to get in the hands of the right people who recognize it for the awesomeness it is. Sometimes, as in the video above, the awesomeness is impossible to ignore. Other times, videos can languish for years before attracting mass attention.
Identifying the 'right people' is nearly impossible, so it's usually not worth trying to bother. And if you're not already Internet Famous, your own ability to pimp your own goods is diminished, however, it never hurts to spread the link around on Twitter, FaceBook or whatever.
However, you won't get really big, until someone with resources notices you. For Brushwood, this was Revision3. For Rachel Bloom from the video above, it was Penn Jillette. Penn talking about it, happened just prior to a fairly large increase in views according to the YouTube stats. A large number of the comments on the video reference Penn's talking about the video, though most of the more recent ones are...colorful.
Now, Penn Jillette is a legitimate celebrity, no doubt. But he also have over a million twitter followers, so when he posts a link, people see it. Not to mention all the people who see those who've retweeted those links. The numbers increase really quickly.
But that's the game. The only way to become Internet Famous is to produce awesome content. Be persistent. And have just a little bit of luck.